The methodology is a theoretical point of reference in the educational sciences. The most important tasks of the scientific methodology are to help a researcher to organize a scientific search, to train special skills in the field of research work, as well as to help a practicing professor to understand his professional and personal position.
In modern literature, methodology is understood primarily as the methodology of scientific cognition, that is, the doctrine of the construction principles, forms and methods of scientific and cognitive activities. The methodology of science characterizes the components of scientific research:
- Its objective
- The subject of analysis
- Research tasks
- A set of research tools necessary to address them
- And it also forms an idea of the sequence of the researcher’s movement in the process of solving research tasks.
These definitions reflect the process of gradual development of the field of methodological reflection, the knowledge that researchers have of their own activities and the fact that this reflection goes beyond the limits of individual experience. On this basis, the methodology of pedagogical science must be considered as a set of theoretical provisions on pedagogical cognition and the transformation of reality.
The entire methodology performs normative tasks. This, in fact, is its purpose. But methodological knowledge can be descriptive or prescriptive (normative), that is, in the form of recommendations, direct instructions for the activity.
The descriptive methodology as a doctrine on the structure of scientific knowledge, laws of scientific cognition serve as a guide in the research process, and prescriptive methodology aims to regulate activities. The normative methodological analysis is dominated by constructive tasks related to the elaboration of positive recommendations and norms of scientific activity. The descriptive analysis deals with a retrospective description of the already implemented processes of scientific cognition.
Aspects of Educational Methodology
There are two aspects to understanding the methodology of education:
Educational methodology is understood to be a systematic presentation of guiding ideas (philosophical, psychological, pedagogical, etc.), which become guidelines in scientific and practical activities and in the formation of the research contents; Educational methodology is understood when speaking of the methodological basis of an individual study or the methodological basis of the professional position of a teacher.
The methodology of education is a normative knowledge about the methods of organization of scientific research in education, that is, its program, its logic, its main characteristics, the methods of evaluating the quality of research work.
The methodology of education is a teaching on the psychological and pedagogical knowledge itself, the regularities of its development, the principles of the approach and the methods of its extraction, the categorical apparatus, the bases and the structure of psychological and pedagogical theory.
Pedagogical research methods, unlike methodology, are the very methods of studying pedagogical phenomena and obtaining scientific information about them to establish logical links, relationships and construct scientific theories. All its diversity can be divided into groups: theoretical research methods, methods of empirical knowledge of pedagogical phenomena (methods of learning from pedagogical experience, experimental methods, methods of pedagogical tests), mathematical and statistical methods. According to the logic of the scientific search, the research method is developed. It represents a complex of theoretical and empirical methods, the combination of which makes it possible to study with the greatest reliability such a complex and multifunctional object as the educational process. The application of a series of methods allows an exhaustive analysis of the problem under study, all its aspects and parameters.